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Table 1 Swales’ CARS model (adapted from Swales 1990, 141)

From: An exploratory genre analysis of three graduate degree research proposals in applied linguistics

Move one Establishing a territory
 Step 1  Claiming centrality and/or
 Step 2  Making topic generalization(s) and/or
 Step 3  Reviewing items of previous research
Move two Establishing a niche
 Step 1A  Counter-claiming
 Step 1B  Indicating a gap
 Step 1C  Question-raising
 Step 1D  Continuing a tradition
Move three Occupying the niche
 Step 1A  Outlining purposes
 Step 1B  Announcing present research
 Step 2  Announcing principal findings
 Step 3  Indicating RA structure