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Table 2 Analyzing external voices with engagement: four categories of dialogic voicing

From: Using the Appraisal framework to analyze source use in essays: a case study of engagement and dialogism in two undergraduate students’ writing

Engagement Term Description Example
dialogic contraction pronouncement closes down a dialogue; can be a bare assertion that looks like facts. - This is really the case.
- It is true that…
disclaim or deny narrows down the possible answers - They believe this but the study shows that they are wrong.
dialogic expansion entertain and highlight recognizes other possible truths and uncertainties - That is an option.
- They must look at this.
possibility or probability recognizes other points of view; the chances of a statement being true - Other people might think...
- It is most likely true.