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Table 3 Other categories for analyzing external voices

From: Using the Appraisal framework to analyze source use in essays: a case study of engagement and dialogism in two undergraduate students’ writing

Category Question addressed Possible answers Examples
textual integration How is the text incorporated? - Quotation - Smith(1999) says, “this is...”
- paraphrase - Smith (1999) states…
- quotation and paraphrase - Smith (1999) states … and that people “should…”
author integration Is the external voice mentioned in the text? - yes (integrated) - Smith (1999) states…
- no, end of text citation only - It is known that… (Smith, 1999).
vocalization Who/what is the subject/agent of the sentence? Whose voice is present? - external voice - Smith (1999) states…
- authorial voice - I believe…
- abstract / inanimate object - The reality is… It is important
- animate object / passive voice - Research shows… It is known…
endorsement Does the student endorse the external voice’s ideas? - yes (endorsed) - Smith (1999) effectively shows…
- no - Smith (1999) claims to know…