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Table 4 Two examples of analyzing external voices with the five categories

From: Using the Appraisal framework to analyze source use in essays: a case study of engagement and dialogism in two undergraduate students’ writing

Student text Dialogism Textual integration Author integr-ation Vocaliza-tion Endor-sement
Kids that are more likely to become bullies are often possessive, aggressive or have low self-esteem (stopbullying.gov). [Wes] dialogic contraction: pronounce or proclaim paraphrase no passive voice, unknown agent yes
Kumaravadivelu (2006:165) suggests a movement toward recognizing…[Mara] dialogic expansion: entertains paraphrase yes external voice no