Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 6 Comparison of a section of Mara’s rough and final draft

From: Using the Appraisal framework to analyze source use in essays: a case study of engagement and dialogism in two undergraduate students’ writing

Rough Draft: neutral evaluation and little source integration Final Draft: Stronger evaluation and source integration
My experience in light of Pettis’ words causes me to critically evaluate the how language is formally taught within schools. The ways in which second- and foreign languages are taught should matter, not only to educators, but also to learners and to our society. For educators, this means having enough training or background so that they can summon diverse teaching methods in the classroom to pre-empt statements such as the ones reported by Pettis. The benefits of this are twofold. Teachers receive adequate training and students receive appropriate instruction. Then, when educators can implement the most appropriate methods and processes by which to teach language, they can appropriately build upon students’ learning while being mindful of their diverse needs (Borba, 2009). Furthermore, teachers who feel as if they have sufficient preparation are, in general, better equipped to lead a classroom. Specifically, teachers who are better equipped can then promote and accelerate students’ development (Cummins, 2003). Reflecting upon my experience in light of Pettis’ words causes me to critically evaluate how language is formally taught within schools. In my opinion, the ways in which second- and foreign languages are taught should matter, not only to educators, but also to learners and to our society. For educators, this means having enough training or background so that they can summon diverse teaching methods in the classroom in order to pre-empt statements such as the ones reported by Pettis. The benefits of this are twofold: teachers would receive adequate training, and students would gain varied methods of instruction. Mary Borba concurs that educators could then implement the most appropriate methods and processes by which to teach language so as to build upon students’ learning. She states that when teachers understand the processes of language development, “their expectations are more realistic, and they are able to scaffold learning appropriately” (2009:374). I agree with Borba, and so does Jim Cummins. Cummins argues that teachers can further promote and accelerate students’ development by implementing pedagogical approaches that “succeed in liberating students from instructional dependence,” (2003:32).