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Table 3 Circumstances in the Hallidayan transitivity system (Halliday and Matthiessen 2014)

From: Putting transitivity to the test: a review of the Sydney and Cardiff models

Types of circumstances Probe Example
Category Subcategory Subtype
Enhancing Extent Distance How far? over 12,000 miles
Duration How long? for several hours
Frequency How many times? 15 times
Location Place Where? in Tulsa
Time When? in September
Manner Means How? By means of? by train
Quality In what way? this way
Comparison What like? His hair was cut differently
Degree How much? I like him very much
Cause Reason Why? because of
Purpose What for? for the purpose of
Behalf Who for? on behalf of
Contingency Condition In which case? in the event of
Default Unless what? Unless
Concession Despite what? in spite of
Extending Accompaniment Comitative With what/who? without you
Additive Who/What else? in addition to
Elaborating Role Guise What as? as a 13-year-old
Product What into? Madonna softened into a more human figure
Projection Matter What about? about his daughter
Angle Source According to who/what? according to your report
Viewpoint In whose opinion? in my opinion