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Table 1 Learning By Design Framework. Adapted from Cope and Kalantzis (2015)

From: Developing a systemic functional approach to teach multimodal literacy

Dimensions Knowledge Processes Description
Situated Practice Experiencing (the known and the new) Immersion of learners in the everyday world outside of the educational setting, building on familiar, prior knowledge; and making intelligible, unfamiliar domains of experience through scaffolding with the assistance of peers, teachers
Overt Instruction Conceptualising (by naming and with theory) Learners learn to use abstract, generalising terms through drawing distinctions, identifying similarities and differences, and categorizing with labels; and connecting concepts to language, visual, diagrammatic forms
Critical Framing Analyzing (functionally and critically) Learners examine cause and effect, structure and function. Learners develop chains of reasoning and explain patterns; and interrogate the world of subjectivity (human agency, interest and intent)
Transformed Practice Applying (appropriately and creatively) Learning by applying experiential, conceptual or critical knowledge involving exact replication or precise reproduction; and taking knowledge and capabilities from one setting and adapting them to a different setting